Kanglaite inhibits EMT caused by TNF-α via NF-κΒ inhibition in colorectal cancer cells
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Guiling Shi1,*, Xiaoli Zheng1,*, Shiwu Zhang1, Xiaojing Wu1, Fei Yu3, Yijia Wang1 and Fei Xing2
1Tianjin Union Medical Center, Tianjin 300121, China
2The Key Laboratory of Weak Light Nonlinear Photonics, Ministry of Education, Teda Applied Physics School and School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
3School of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300121, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Yijia Wang, email: email@example.com
Fei Xing, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: TNF-α; EMT; kanglaite; NF-κΒ; colorectal cancer cell lines
Received: November 01, 2017 Accepted: December 01, 2017 Published: December 22, 2017
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and was once considered an anti-tumor agent. However, a low dose of tumor necrosis factor-alpha can cause epithelial mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and metastasis. NF-κΒ contributes to epithelial mesenchymal transition induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Kanglaite, an extract from the Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay) seed, is an NF-κΒ inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Kanglaite could inhibit epithelial mesenchymal transition caused by tumor necrosis factor-alpha using four colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT106, HCT116, LoVo and CT26. Our results showed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha -mediated activation of NF-κΒ, caused changes in epithelial mesenchymal transition -related protein expression, and increased migration and invasion in all four cell lines. However, these effects were inhibited by Kanglaite when used in combination with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In a subcutaneous tumor model of CT26, tumor necrosis factor-alpha enhanced the tumorigenic ability of the cells, and again this was inhibited by Kanglaite. However, treatment with Kanglaite alone caused almost no inhibition of epithelial mesenchymal transition -mediated tumor growth, when cells were pretreated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha prior to injection. These results suggest that Kanglaite inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha -mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer cell lines via inhibition of NF-κΒ.
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