A spliced form of CD44 expresses the unique glycan that is recognized by the prostate cancer specific antibody F77
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Xi Chen1,*, Yasuhiro Nagai1,*, Zhiqiang Zhu1, Hang Ruan1, Donna M. Peehl2, Mark I. Greene1 and Hongtao Zhang1
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Mark I. Greene, email: [email protected]
Hongtao Zhang, email: [email protected]
Keywords: prostate cancer; antibody; post-translational modification; O-linked glycosylation; CD44
Received: August 01, 2017 Accepted: November 26, 2017 Published: December 16, 2017
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer occurring in men in the United States. The monoclonal antibody F77 that was originally developed in our laboratory recognizes mainly glycolipids as well as O-linked glycosylation on proteins in prostate cancer cells. We have identified a spliced form of glycoprotein CD44 as one critical protein expressing the F77 antigen. The F77-specific glycosylation occurs on multiple potential glycosylation sites on the CD44 protein encoded by the fourteenth exon. CD44 is a tumor stem cell marker and is known to induce tumor stemness and metastasis. Knockdown of CD44 or FUT1 genes dramatically reduced F77-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. We developed an ELISA using both a CD44 antibody and F77 to identify the special form of glycosylated CD44 from prostate cancer cells as well as from serum samples of prostate cancer patients. These results reveal a CD44-dependent mechanism for F77 to induce tumor cell apoptosis, and a new strategy for the detection of glycosylated CD44 proteins secreted by prostate cancer cells.
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