Oncotarget

Research Papers:

Greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol variability is associated with increased progression to dialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3

Yu-Hsuan Lin, Jiun-Chi Huang, Pei-Yu Wu, Szu-Chia Chen _, Yi-Wen Chiu, Jer-Ming Chang and Hung-Chun Chen

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Oncotarget. 2018; 9:3242-3253. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.23228

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Abstract

Yu-Hsuan Lin1, Jiun-Chi Huang2,3,4,6, Pei-Yu Wu3,4, Szu-Chia Chen2,3,4,6, Yi-Wen Chiu3,6, Jer-Ming Chang3,5,6 and Hung-Chun Chen3,6

1School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

3Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

4Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

5Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Cijin Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

6Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Correspondence to:

Szu-Chia Chen, email: [email protected]

Keywords: LDL-cholesterol variability; chronic kidney disease; dialysis

Received: August 25, 2017     Accepted: November 16, 2017     Published: December 14, 2017

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests that lipid variability may be a predictor of cardiovascular events. However, few studies have evaluated the association between lipid variability and renal outcomes in patients with moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess whether lipid variability is associated with progression to dialysis in patients with CKD stage 3–5, and to evaluate the risk factors of lipid variability. This longitudinal study enrolled 725 patients with CKD stage 3–5. Intra-individual lipid variability was defined as the standard deviations (SDs) of lipid levels. The renal end-point was defined as commencing dialysis. During a mean follow-up period of 3.2 years, 208 patients (28.7%) started dialysis. The patients with CKD stage 3 with high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol SD (per 1 mg/dL; hazard ratio, 1.035; 95% confidence interval, 1.003 to 1.067; p = 0.003) were associated with an increased risk of progression to dialysis, however this association was not seen in the patients with CKD stage 4 or 5. Furthermore, in the patients with CKD stage 3, a high urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (p < 0.001) and the use of statins (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with an increased LDL-cholesterol SD. Greater LDL-cholesterol variability was associated with an increased risk of progression to dialysis in patients with CKD stage 3, but not in those with CKD stage 4 or 5. These findings support the potential role of aggressive lipid control on clinical outcomes and highlight its importance in patients with CKD stage 3.


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