Research Papers: Immunology:
Effects of different cytokines on immune responses of rainbow trout in a virus DNA vaccination model
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Yongsheng Cao1,2, Qiya Zhang2, Liming Xu1, Shaowu Li1, Di Wang1, Jingzhuang Zhao1, Hongbai Liu1, Jian Feng3 and Tongyan Lu1
1 Heilongjiang River Fishery Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China
3 Benxi Agrimarine Company Limited, Benxi, China
Tongyan Lu, email:
Qiya Zhang, email:
Keywords: rainbow trout; cytokines; adjuvant; DNA vaccine; protection; Immune response; Immunology
Received: June 01, 2017 Accepted: November 17, 2017 Published: December 11, 2017
Seven rainbow trout cytokine genes (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-15, IL-17, IL-1β, intracellular interferon (iIFN) 1a, and IFN-γ2) were evaluated for their adjuvant effects on a DNA vaccine, called pG, containing the glycoprotein gene of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Distinct DNA constructs in expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 encoding a cytokine gene were generated. Immunofluorescence assays in rainbow trout gonadal cells demonstrated successful protein expression from all these constructs. Subsequently, fish were immunized with pG alone or together with a cytokine expression plasmid. Results showed that each cytokine plasmids at an appropriate dose showed notable effects on immune gene expression. IL-17 and IFN-γ2 can enhance early specific IgM response. All cytokines, except IL-8, can benefit initial neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers. At 35 days post immunization (dpi), NAb titers of fish immunized with pG and IL-2, iIFN1a, or IFN-γ2 plasmids remained at high levels (1:160). NAb titers of fish immunized with pG alone decreased to 1:40. IL-8 or IL-1β can enhance antigen-specific proliferative T-cell responses at 14 dpi. At 28 dpi, coinjection of pG with IL-2, IL-8, IL-15, or IL-17 plasmids induced considerably stronger lymphocyte proliferation than that with injection of pG alone. All cytokine plasmids delivered with pG plasmid enhanced protection of trout against IHNV-mediated mortality. These results indicate that the type and dose of trout cytokine genes injected into fish affect quality of immune response to DNA vaccination.
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