PTEN loss and level of HER2 amplification is associated with trastuzumab resistance and prognosis in HER2-positive gastric cancer
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Chan Kim1,*, Choong-Kun Lee2,*, Hong Jae Chon1,*, Joo Hoon Kim2, Hyung Soon Park2, Su Jin Heo2, Hyun Jeong Kim3, Tae Soo Kim3, Woo Sun Kwon3, Hyun Cheol Chung2,3,4 and Sun Young Rha2,3,4
1Medical Oncology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea
2Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
3Song Dang Institute for Cancer Research, Seoul, Korea
4Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
*These authors contributed equally to this study
Sun Young Rha, email: [email protected]
Keywords: trastuzumab; resistance; gastric cancer; HER2; PTEN
Received: August 08, 2017 Accepted: November 13, 2017 Published: December 09, 2017
Background: Trastuzumab is an active agent against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to characterize resistance to trastuzumab-based front-line chemotherapy in HER2+ GC patients and to establish factors predictive of this resistance.
Results: Among 129 HER2+ GC patients, 25% displayed rapid disease progression within 4 months from initiation of therapy. These patients showed a higher rate of signet ring cell histology, bone metastasis, poor performance status, frequent loss of PTEN expression, and low HER2 amplification index compared with patients who were progression-free for at least 4 months. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the PIK3R1 variant. Multivariate analyses confirmed two independent molecular predictors for trastuzumab resistance: loss of PTEN expression and low HER2 amplification index (<5). Patients with one or both molecular predictors at diagnosis exhibited worse progression-free and overall survival compared to those without risk factors (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: In HER2+ GC patients, loss of PTEN expression and low HER2 AI correlated with resistance to trastuzumab-based therapy and dismal prognosis. Since patients harboring these molecular predictors are unlikely to respond to trastuzumab-based therapy, other novel therapeutic targets needed to be considered.
Methods: HER2+ GC patients who were treated with trastuzumab in combination with either 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin or capecitabine/cisplatin were enrolled. Clinicopathologic features and molecular alterations of HER2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were correlated with treatment outcome. Factors predictive of resistance were also explored.
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