Antitumor activity of resveratrol against human osteosarcoma cells: a key role of Cx43 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway
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Da Xie1,*, Gui-Zhou Zheng1,*, Peng Xie1,*, Qi-Hao Zhang1, Fei-Xiang Lin1, Bo Chang1, Qin-Xiao Hu1, Shi-Xin Du1 and Xue-Dong Li1
1Department of Orthopedics, The Third Affiliated Hospital (The Affiliated Luohu Hospital) of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518000, Guangdong, P. R. China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Shi-Xin Du, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Xue-Dong Li, email: email@example.com
Keywords: osteosarcoma; resveratrol; connexin 43; Wnt/β-catenin signaling; antitumor activity
Received: September 16, 2017 Accepted: November 13, 2017 Published: November 30, 2017
Osteosarcoma is a high-grade bone sarcoma with strong invasive ability. However, treatment with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs is limited by low tolerability and side effects. Resveratrol has been reported previously to have selective antitumor effect on various tumor cells while little is known about its effects and underlying mechanism in osteosarcoma biology. In this study, we found that resveratrol inhibits proliferation and glycolysis, induces apoptosis and reduces the invasiveness of U2-OS cells in vitro. After treatment with resveratrol, the expression of related Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway target genes, such as β-catenin, c-myc, cyclin D1, MMP-2 and MMP-9, was downregulated and an increased E-cadherin level was observed as well. Additionally, the dual luciferase assay results also indicated that resveratrol suppressed the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Interestingly, we noticed that the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) increased with the prolongation of resveratrol treatment time. To further investigate the relationship between Cx43 and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in osteosarcoma, we used lentiviral-mediated shRNA to knockdown the expression of Cx43. Knockdown of Cx43 activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, promoted proliferation and invasion, and inhibited apoptosis of U2-OS cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the antitumor activity of resveratrol against U2-OS cells in vitro occurs through up-regulating Cx43 and E-cadherin, and suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, Cx43 expression is negatively related to the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in U2-OS cells.
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