High-dose sitagliptin for systemic inhibition of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 to enhance engraftment of single cord umbilical cord blood transplantation
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Sherif S. Farag1,4, Robert Nelson1,4, Mitchell S. Cairo5, Heather A. O’Leary1,4, Shuhong Zhang1, Carol Huntley4, David Delgado3, Jennifer Schwartz1, Mohammad Abu Zaid1, Rafat Abonour1, Michael Robertson1,4 and Hal Broxmeyer2,4
1Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
3Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
4Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
5Children and Adolescent Cancer and Blood Diseases Center and Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA
Sherif S. Farag, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: cord blood; DPP-4; CD26; engraftment; leukemia
Received: October 03, 2017 Accepted: October 30, 2017 Published: November 27, 2017
Delayed engraftment remains a limitation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. We previously showed that inhibition of dipeptidylpeptidase (DPP)-4 using sitagliptin 600 mg daily was safe with encouraging results on engraftment, but inhibition was not sustained. We evaluated the efficacy and feasibility of higher doses of sitagliptin to enhance engraftment of UCB in patients with hematological cancers. Fifteen patients, median age 41 (range, 18-59) years, received single UCB grafts matched at 4 (n=11) or 5 (n=4) of 6 HLA loci with median nucleated cell dose of 3.5 (range, 2.57-4.57) x107/kg. Sitagliptin 600 mg every 12 hours was administered days -1 to +2. All patients engrafted by day 30, with 12 (80%) engrafting by day 21. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was 19 (range, 12-30) days. Plasma DPP-4 activity was better inhibited with a mean residual trough DPP-4 activity of 70%±19%. Compared to patients previously treated with 600 mg/day, sitagliptin 600 mg every 12 hours appeared to improve engraftment, supporting the hypothesis that more sustained DPP-4 inhibition is required. In-vivo inhibition of DPP-4 using high-dose sitagliptin compares favorably with other approaches to enhance UCB engraftment with greater simplicity, and may show synergy in combination with other strategies.
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