Higher expression of FOXOs correlates to better prognosis of bladder cancer
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Ying Zhang1, Linpei Jia2, Ying Zhang3, Wei Ji4 and Hai Li5
1Department of Pathology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130033, P.R. China
2Department of Nephrology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100000, P.R. China
3Department of Neurology, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, P.R. China
4Department of Vascular Surgery, Jilin Provincial People’s Hospital, Changchun 130000, P.R. China
5Department of Urology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130033, P.R. China
Hai Li, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: bladder cancer; forkhead box class O; clinicopathological characteristics; prognosis
Received: August 30, 2017 Accepted: September 24, 2017 Published: October 24, 2017
Background: We aimed to explore the expression of forkhead box class O (FOXO) and relations between expressions of FOXOs and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of bladder cancer.
Methods: We enrolled a cohort of 276 patients with bladder cancer in our study. Expressions of FOXOs in bladder cancer tissue and adjacent tissue were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Correlations between expression of FOXOs and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were analyzed. The relationship between expression of FOXOs and survival time of patients with bladder cancer was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Log-rank test; individual variables which may affect the prognosis of bladder cancer were detected by the Cox proportional hazard regression model.
Results: Compared with bladder cancer tissue, a higher expression of FOXOs was detected in paracancerous tissue. We found significant associations between histological grade and the expressions of FOXOs, clinical stage and the expressions of FOXOs, and lymph node metastasis and the expressions of FOXOs (all P < 0.05). When used for diagnosing bladder cancer, the mRNA expression of FOXO1/3/4 produced cut off values of 1.475, 1.305, and 1.295, respectively, exhibiting relatively high specificity and sensitivity. The Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that patients with a higher expression of FOXOs tended to have a longer overall survival than those with lower expression. The Cox regression analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis, high clinical stage, and low expression of FOXOs were independent risk factors for bladder cancer prognosis.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that the expression of FOXOs is closely correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of bladder cancer.
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