Wheat germ agglutinin-induced paraptosis-like cell death and protective autophagy is mediated by autophagy-linked FYVE inhibition
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Tsung Lin Tsai1,3, Hao Chen Wang2, Chun Hua Hung1, Peng Chan Lin1, Yi San Lee1, Helen H.W. Chen3 and Wu Chou Su1,2
1Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
2Insititue of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
Wu Chou Su, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Helen H.W. Chen, email: email@example.com
Keywords: cell death, wheat germ agglutinin, paraptosis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, Alfy
Received: February 03, 2017 Accepted: July 11, 2017 Published: August 24, 2017
Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a lectin that specifically binds cell surface glycoproteins and disrupts nuclear pore complex function through its interaction with POM121. Our data indicate WGA induces paraptosis-like cell death without caspase activation. We observed the main features of paraptosis, including cytoplasmic vacuolation, endoplasmic reticulum dilation and increased ER stress, and the unfolded protein response in WGA-treated cervical carcinoma cells. Conversion of microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (LC3-I) into LC3-II and punctuate formation suggestive of autophagy were observed in WGA-treated cells. WGA-induced autophagy antagonized paraptosis in HeLa and CaSKi cells, which expressed autophagy-linked FYVE (Alfy) protein, but not in SiHa cells that did not express Alfy. Alfy knockdown in HeLa cells induced paraptosis-like cell death. These data indicate that WGA-induced cell death occurs through paraptosis and that autophagy may exert a protective effect. WGA treatment and Alfy inhibition could be an effective therapeutic strategy for apoptosis-resistant cervical cancer cells.
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