Role of growth differentiation factor 11 in development, physiology and disease
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Yonghui Zhang1,2, Yong Wei3, Dan Liu1,2, Feng Liu2, Xiaoshan Li1,2, Lianhong Pan2, Yi Pang2 and Dilong Chen2
1Department of Basic Medical Science, Chongqing Three Gorges Medical College, Chongqing, China
2Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Antitumor Natural Drugs, Chongqing, China
3College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Chongqing Three Gorges University, Chongqing, China
Dilong Chen, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: GDF11, signaling, function
Received: November 30, 2016 Accepted: July 28, 2017 Published: August 14, 2017
Growth differentiation factor (GDF11) is a member of TGF-β/BMP superfamily that activates Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways and regulates expression of its target nuclear genes. Since its discovery in 1999, studies have shown the involvement of GDF11 in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development and erythropoiesis, as well as in the pathophysiology of aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. In addition, there are contradictory reports regarding the role of GDF11 in aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteogenesis, skeletal muscle development, and neurogenesis. In this review, we describe the GDF11 signaling pathway and its potential role in development, physiology and disease.
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