Internal mammary lymph nodes radiotherapy of breast cancer in the era of individualized medicine
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Bin-Bin Cong1,2,3, Xiao-Shan Cao2,3, Lu Cao4, Hui Zhu3,5, Yi-Shan Yu3,5, Jin-Ming Yu3,5,*and Yong-Sheng Wang2,3,*
1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, 250200, China
2Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250117, China
3Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, 250062, China
4Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China
5Department of Radiotherapy, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250117, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Yong-Sheng Wang, email: email@example.com
Jin-Ming Yu, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary lymph nodes, sentinel lymph node biopsy, internal mammary lymph nodes irradiation
Received: June 08, 2017 Accepted: July 25, 2017 Published: August 11, 2017
Inclusion internal mammary lymph nodes as a part of regional nodal irradiation have a potential to reduce local recurrence, distant recurrence, and improve survival in breast cancer. However, the increased risk of cardiac toxicity and lungs injure associated with internal mammary lymph nodes irradiation has drew more and more attention. Estimating risk of metastasis in internal mammary lymph nodes based on axillary lymph nodes metastasis status is not always reliable: low-risk do not always mean negative in internal mammary lymph nodes and high-risk do not always indicate positive in internal mammary lymph nodes. Inaccurate prediction of in internal mammary lymph nodes metastasis might lead to over- or under-treatment of in internal mammary lymph node. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique which has a high potential to accurately evaluate the metastasis status in in internal mammary lymph nodes and improve accuracy of nodal staging. This technique might be a useful tool to guide individualized internal mammary lymph nodes irradiation.
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