Clinical Research Papers:
Sleep in lonely heroin-dependent patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment: longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, lower sleep efficiency, and poorer sleep quality
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Hong-Jie Li1,*, Bao-Liang Zhong1,*, Yan-Min Xu1, Jun-Hong Zhu1 and Jin Lu2
1 Affiliated Wuhan Mental Health Center (The Ninth Clinical School), Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
2 Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China
* These authors have contributed equally to this work
Jin Lu, email:
Keywords: sleep, loneliness, heroin dependence, methadone
Received: June 06, 2017 Accepted: July 30, 2017 Published: August 08, 2017
Given the socially isolated status of Chinese heroin-dependent patients (HDPs) and the significant association between loneliness and sleep problem in the general population, the impact of loneliness on sleep of HDPs is potentially substantial. The study aimed to test whether loneliness is associated with poor sleep in terms of quantity and quality in a consecutive sample of Chinese HDPs receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The study participants were 603 HDPs of three MMT clinics in Wuhan, China. Data on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected by a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Sleep outcomes included sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and sleep quality. We measured depressive symptoms, loneliness, and sleep quality by using Zung’s Self-rating Depression Scale, the single-item self-report of loneliness, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to examine whether loneliness is independently associated with sleep measures. After controlling for the confounding effects of potential socio-demographic and clinical variables, loneliness was significantly associated with longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, lower sleep efficiency, and poorer sleep quality. Loneliness may exacerbate sleep disturbance in Chinese HDPs of MMT clinics. Psychosocial interventions aimed at reducing loneliness in MMT clinics would improve the sleep of HDPs.
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