Carrot intake and incidence of urothelial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Xiao Luo _, Hongsun Lu, Yaojun Li and Shijian Wang

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:77957-77962. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.19832

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Xiao Luo1, Hongsun Lu1, Yaojun Li1 and Shijian Wang1

1Department of Urology, The First People's Hospital of Tongxiang City, Tongxiang, Zhejiang Province 314500, China

Correspondence to:

Xiao Luo, email: [email protected]

Keywords: carrot, urothelial cancer, meta-analysis, risk

Received: May 16, 2017     Accepted: July 25, 2017     Published: August 03, 2017


Previous studies regarding the relationship between carrot intake and risk of urothelial cancer have reported conflicting results. Hence we performed a meta-analysis of eligible studies to summarize evidence on this association. A comprehensive search up to January 2017 was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane register, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The combined odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest intake of carrot was calculated. A total of six epidemiological studies consisting of four case-control and two cohort studies were included. Overall analysis indicated a significantly reduced risk of urothelial cancer for high intake of carrot (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44–0.90). Obvious significant heterogeneity was observed among included studies (P < 0.001 for heterogeneity; I2 = 79.6%). There was no significant publication bias by Begg’s test (P = 0.348) or Egger’s test (P = 0.130). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that high intake of carrot is associated with a low incidence of urothelial cancer. Considering the limited included studies and huge heterogeneity, further large well-designed prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm the findings from our meta-analysis.

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