Oncotarget

Clinical Research Papers:

Mid-arm muscle circumference as a substantial factor against mortality among people with elevated gamma gaps

Yuan-Ping Chao, Yi-Fen Lai, Tung-Wei Kao, Tao-Chun Peng, Yuan-Yung Lin, Mu-Tsun Shih, Wei-Liang Chen and Li-Wei Wu _

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Oncotarget. 2018; 9:1311-1325. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.19372

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Abstract

Yuan-Ping Chao1, Yi-Fen Lai1, Tung-Wei Kao1,2, Tao-Chun Peng1, Yuan-Yung Lin3,4, Mu-Tsun Shih4,5, Wei-Liang Chen1,2,3 and Li-Wei Wu1,2,4

1Division of Family Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital and School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital and School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

3Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital and School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

4Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

5Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital and School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

Correspondence to:

Li-Wei Wu, email: [email protected]

Keywords: anthropometric parameters, MAMC, gamma gap, NHANES, mortality

Received: April 14, 2017     Accepted: July 07, 2017     Published: July 19, 2017

ABSTRACT

Gamma gap is the difference in total serum proteins and albumin and an elevated gamma gap is related to infections, malignancy, and rheumatic diseases. An elevated gamma gap is also associated with higher mortality due to the correlation with inflammatory status. The study aimed to utilize mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) to assist in predicting all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, and cardiovascular mortality in people with elevated gamma gaps. Data were obtained from the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994), which contained 14,011 adults aged 20 to 90 years during up to 14.3 years of follow-up. The Primary analysis examined MAMC in tertiles and revealed the demographic and characteristics of the study population. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used and the most suitable cut-off point of gamma gap was 3.65 g/dl. The secondary analysis employed Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, gender and body mass index to evaluate the hazard ratios for all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, and cardiovascular mortality associated with the MAMC. As the MAMC tertiles increased in group with gamma gap ≥ 3.65 g/dl, individuals with elder age (60–90 years), normal range of body mass index (19–24.9 kg/m2), and male gender tended to have lower hazard ratios for all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, and cardiovascular mortality. These substantial findings indicate that higher MAMC may be a protective factor of all cause-mortality, cancer mortality, and cardiovascular mortality among older male with normal body mass index and elevated gamma gaps.


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