Therapeutic efficacy of SYM004, a mixture of two anti-EGFR antibodies in human colorectal cancer with acquired resistance to cetuximab and MET activation
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Stefania Napolitano1, Giulia Martini1, Erika Martinelli1, Valentina Belli1, Alessia Parascandolo2, Mikko O. Laukkanen2, Vincenzo Sforza1, Floriana Morgillo1, Davide Ciardiello1, Fortunato Ciardiello1 and Teresa Troiani1
1Oncologia Medica, Dipartimento Medico-Chirurgico di Internistica Clinica e Sperimentale “F. Magrassi e A. Lanzara”, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, 80131 Naples, Italy
2IRCCS SDN, Via Gianturco, 80143 Naples, Italy
Teresa Troiani, email: [email protected]
Fortunato Ciardiello, email: [email protected]
Keywords: SYM004, cetuximab, acquired resistance, MET, metastatic colorectal cancer
Received: December 05, 2016 Accepted: February 14, 2017 Published: June 27, 2017
Purpose: Cetuximab and panitumumab have an effective therapeutic response in a subset of RAS Wild-Type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRCs). Despite molecular-driven selection, all patients do not respond to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors and the onset of secondary resistance limits their clinical benefit.
Experimental Design: We tested, in vitro and in vivo, the effect of SYM004, a 1:1 mixture of two recombinant human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against non-overlapping epitopes of the EGFR, on CRC models with acquired resistance to cetuximab.
Results: SYM004 showed a potent growth inhibitory effect in CRC cell lines with acquired resistance to cetuximab and MET activation. SYM004 treatment determined a significant induction of apoptosis and a strong inhibition of MET, AKT and MAPK phosphorilation in these resistant models. The data may further suggest SYM004 -driven induced internalization and degradation of the antibody-receptor complex, which prevents cross-interaction between EGFR and MET even in the presence of TGFα. Moreover, in vivo xenograft studies demonstrated that SYM004 has stronger antitumor activity than cetuximab in CRC models. Importantly, in the current work we observed a response to therapy in all cetuximab resistant tumors mice treated with SYM004. More importantly, four out of seven mice continue to respond to SYM004 after 30 weeks of treatment underling the prolonged effect of the drug.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the treatment with SYM004 could be a strategy to overcome acquired resistance to first generation of anti-EGFR therapies in mCRC as a result of MET activation.
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