Combined renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and statin therapy effectively reduces the risk of cerebrovascular accident in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study
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Pei-Hsun Sung1,*, Hsin-Ju Chiang2,3,*, Mel S. Lee4, John Y. Chiang5,6, Hon-Kan Yip1,7,8,9 and Yao-Hsu Yang10,11,12
1Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
3Chung Shan Medical University School of Medicine, Taichung, Taiwan
4Department of Orthopedics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
5Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
6Department of Healthcare Administration and Medical Informatics, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
7Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine and Center for Shockwave Medicine and Tissue Engineering, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
8Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
9Department of Nursing, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
10Department for Traditional Chinese Medicine and Center of Excellence for Chang Gung Research Datalink, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan
11Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan
12School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Hon-Kan Yip, email: email@example.com
Yao-Hsu Yang, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, cerebrovascular accident, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade, statin, population-based cohort study
Received: March 01, 2017 Accepted: May 22, 2017 Published: June 27, 2017
Fairly limited data reported the incidence and risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Additionally, little is known regarding the therapeutic impact of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade and statin on reducing the occurrence of CVA in ADPKD. We utilized the data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to perform a population-based cohort study (1997-2013). A total of 2,647 patients with ADPKD were selected from 1,000,000 general population after excluding patients with age<18, renal replacement therapy and concomitant diagnosis of CVA. Additionally, non-ADPKD subjects were assigned as comparison group by matching study cohort with age, gender, income and urbanization in 1:10 ratio (n=26,470). The results showed that ADPKD group had significantly higher frequency rate and cumulative incidence of CVA as compared with the non-ADPKD group (8.73% v.s. 3.93%, p<0.0001). Furthermore, the frequencies of both hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes were also significantly higher in the ADPKD than non-ADPKD group (all p-values <0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender and atherosclerotic risk factors with multivariate analysis, ADPKD independently carried 2.34- and 5.12-fold risk for occurrence of CVA and hemorrhagic stroke (95% CI: 2.02-2.72 and 4.01-6.54), respectively. Combination therapy [adjusted (a) HR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.11-0.31] was superior to either RAAS blockade (aHR=0.37, 95% CI, 0.28-0.5) or statin (aHR=0.44, 95% CI, 0.24-0.79) alone for reducing the CVA occurrence in the ADPKD population. In conclusion, ADPKD was associated with an increased risk of CVA occurrence. Combined RAAS blockade and statin therapy effectively reduces the risk of CVA in ADPKD.
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