Clinical Research Papers:

The prostate health index PHI predicts oncological outcome and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy - analysis in 437 patients

Andreas Maxeiner _, Ergin Kilic, Julia Matalon, Frank Friedersdorff, Kurt Miller, Klaus Jung, Carsten Stephan and Jonas Busch

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:79279-79288. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17476

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Andreas Maxeiner1, Ergin Kilic2, Julia Matalon1, Frank Friedersdorff1, Kurt Miller1, Klaus Jung1,3, Carsten Stephan1,3 and Jonas Busch1

1 Department of Urology, Charité, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

2 Department of Pathology, Charité, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany

3 Berlin Institute for Urologic Research, Berlin, Germany

Correspondence to:

Andreas Maxeiner, email:

Keywords: prostate cancer; biomarker; prostate health index; prostate-specific antigen; biochemical recurrence

Received: January 30, 2017 Accepted:April 15, 2017 Published: April 27, 2017


The purpose of this study was to investigate the Prostate-Health-Index (PHI) for pathological outcome prediction following radical prostatectomy and also for biochemical recurrence prediction in comparison to established parameters such as Gleason-score, pathological tumor stage, resection status (R0/1) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA).

Out of a cohort of 460 cases with preoperative PHI-measurements (World Health Organization calibration: Beckman Coulter Access-2-Immunoassay) between 2001 and 2014, 437 patients with complete follow up data were included. From these 437 patients, 87 (19.9%) developed a biochemical recurrence. Patient characteristics were compared by using chi-square test. Predictors were analyzed by multivariate adjusted logistic and Cox regression.

The median follow up for a biochemical recurrence was 65 (range 3-161) months. PHI, PSA, [-2]proPSA, PHI- and PSA-density performed as significant variables (p < 0.05) for cancer aggressiveness: Gleason-score <7 or ≥7 (ISUP grade 1 or ≥2) . Concerning pathological tumor stage discrimination and prediction, variables as PHI, PSA, %fPSA, [-2]proPSA, PHI- and PSA-density significantly discriminated between stages <pT3 and ≥pT3 with the highest AUC (0.7) for PHI. In biochemical recurrence prediction PHI, PSA, [-2]proPSA, PHI- and PSA-density were the strongest predictors.

In conclusion, due to heterogeneity of time spans to biochemical recurrence, longer follow up periods are crucial. This study with a median follow up of more than 5 years, confirmed a clinical value for PHI as an independent biomarker essential for biochemical recurrence prediction.

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