Transforming growth factor β: A potential biomarker and therapeutic target of ventricular remodeling
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Yuan Ma1,5,*, Hai Zou1,5,*, Xing-Xing Zhu2,5,*, Jie Pang1,5, Qiang Xu1,5, Qin-Yang Jin1,5, Ya-Hui Ding1,5, Bing Zhou3,5 and Dong-Sheng Huang4,5
1Department of Cardiology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China
2Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China
3Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China
4Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China
5People’s Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China
Bing Zhou, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ya-Hui Ding, email: email@example.com
Hai Zou, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dong-Sheng Huang, email: email@example.com
Keywords: transforming growth factor β, myocardial fibrosis, ventricular remodeling, mechanism, targets
Received: February 06, 2017 Accepted: April 11, 2017 Published: April 19, 2017
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine that is synthesized by many types of cells and regulates the cell cycle. Increasing evidence has led to TGF-β receiving increased and deserved attention in recent years because it may play a potentially novel and critical role in the development and progression of myocardial fibrosis and the subsequent progress of ventricular remodeling (VR). Numerous studies have highlighted a crucial role of TGF-β in VR and suggest potential therapeutic targets of the TGF-β signaling pathways for VR. Changes in TGF-β activity may elicit anti-VR activity and may serve as a novel therapeutic target for VR therapy. This review we discusses the smad-dependent signaling pathway, such as TGF-β/Smads, TGF-β/Sirtuins, TGF-β/BMP, TGF-β/miRNAs, TGF-β/MAPK, and Smad-independent signaling pathway of TGF-β, such as TGF-β/PI3K/Akt, TGF-β/Rho/ROCK,TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin in the cardiac fibrosis and subsequent progression of VR. Furthermore, agonists and antagonists of TGF-β as potential therapeutic targets in VR are also described.
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