PEGylated PLGA-based phase shift nanodroplets combined with focused ultrasound for blood brain barrier opening in rats
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Xiang Zhang1,2, Jiangang Hu1,2, Guanjian Zhao1,2, Ning Huang1, Ying Tan1, Li Pi1, Qing Huang1, Feng Wang1, Zhigang Wang2, Zhibiao Wang3, Yuan Cheng1
1Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010, China
2Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Institute of Ultrasound Imaging of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China
3Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China
Yuan Cheng, email: [email protected]
Keywords: blood brain barrier, focused ultrasound, acoustic droplet vaporization, perfluoropentane, PLGA
Received: January 17, 2017 Accepted: April 05, 2017 Published: April 17, 2017
Previous studies have shown that focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with systematic administration of microbubbles (MBs) can open the blood brain barrier (BBB) locally, transiently and reversibly. However, because of the micro size diameters, MBs are restricted in the intravascular space and cannot extravasate into diseased sites through the opened BBB. In this study, we fabricated one kind of nanoscale droplets which consisted of encapsulated liquid perfluoropentane cores and poly (ethyleneglycol) - poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) shells. The nanodroplets had the capacity to realize liquid to gas phase shift under FUS. Significant extravasation of Evan’s blue appeared when acoustic pressure reached 1.0 MPa. Intracerebral hemorrhages and erythrocyte extravasations were observed when the pressure was increased to 1.5 MPa. Prolonged sonication duration could enhance the level of BBB opening and broaden the time window simultaneously. Furthermore, compared with MBs, the distribution of EB extravasation was firmly confined within narrow region in the center of focal zone, suggesting the site of FUS induced BBB opening could be controlled with high precision by this procedure. Our results show the feasibility of serving PEGylated PLGA-based phase shift nanodroplet as an effective alternative mediating agent for FUS induced BBB opening.
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