Trends in the management and outcomes of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome complicated by cardiogenic shock over the past decade: Real world data from the acute coronary syndrome Israeli survey (ACSIS)
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Eran Kalmanovich1,*, Alex Blatt1,*, Svetlana Brener1, Meital Shlezinger2, Nir Shlomo2, Zvi Vered1, Hanoch Hod2, Ilan Goldenberg2 and Gabby Elbaz-Greener1
1Department of Cardiology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
2The Heart Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Eran Kalmanovich, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: cardiogenic shock, acute coronary syndrome, acute coronary syndrome Israeli surveys (ACSIS)
Received: September 06, 2016 Accepted: February 27, 2017 Published: April 17, 2017
Registries and other cohorts have demonstrated that early revascularization improve the survival of patients presenting with Cardiogenic Shock (CS) completing Aute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our aim was to describe the change in the clinical characteristics of these patients and their management and their outcome. The study population comprised 224 patients who were admitted with ACS complicated by cardiogenic shock who were enrolled in the prospective biannual Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys (ACSIS) between 2000 and 2013 (1.7% of all patients admitted with ACS during the study period). Survey periods were categorized as early (years 2000-2004) and late (year 2006-2013).
The rate of cardiogenic shock complicated ACS declined from 1.8% between the years 2000-2004 to 1.5% during the years 2006-2013. The clinical presentation in both the early and late groups was similar. During the index hospitalization primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) was more frequently employed during the late surveys [31% vs. 58% (p<0.001)], while fibrinolysis therapy was not used in the late surveys group [27% vs. 0.0% (p=<0.001)]. Compared to patients enrolled in the early surveys, those enrolled in the late survey group experienced significantly lower mortality rates at 7-days (44% vs. 30%, respectively; p=0.03). However, this difference was no longer statistically significant at 30-days (52.8% vs. 46.4%, respectively, p=0.34) and 1-year (63% vs. 53.2%, respectively, p=0.14). Similarly, the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30-days was similar between the two groups (57.4% vs. 47.4%, respectively, p=0.13).
Our findings indicate that patients admitted with ACS complicated by cardiogenic shock still experience very high rates of MACE and mortality during follow-up, despite a significant increase in the use of PPCI in this population over the past decade.
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