Research Papers:

Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy: a comparison of light dosing schedules

Fusa Ogata, Tadanobu Nagaya, Yuko Nakamura, Kazuhide Sato, Shuhei Okuyama, Yasuhiro Maruoka, Peter L. Choyke and Hisataka Kobayashi _

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:35069-35075. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17047

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Fusa Ogata1, Tadanobu Nagaya1, Yuko Nakamura1, Kazuhide Sato1, Shuhei Okuyama1, Yasuhiro Maruoka1, Peter L. Choyke1, Hisataka Kobayashi1

1Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, United States of America

Correspondence to:

Hisataka Kobayashi, email: [email protected]

Keywords: near infrared photoimmunotherapy, monoclonal antibody, cancer treatment, enhanced permeability and retention effect

Received: February 28, 2017     Accepted: March 27, 2017     Published: April 11, 2017


Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a newly-developed cancer therapy in which a monoclonal antibody is conjugated to a near-infrared photoabsorber, IR700 to form an antibody photoabsorber conjugate (APC). After the APC binds to cancer cells expressing the cognate antigen, exposure to NIR light results in rapid, highly selective necrotic cell death of the cancer cells with minimal off-target effects. Several hours after NIR-PIT, the tumor vessels become supraphysiologically permeable and circulating APC can therefore readily leak into the already-treated tumor space where it can bind with viable cancer cells that is called super-enhanced permeability and retention effect. The presence of the SUPR effect after NIR-PIT has prompted regimens in which there is a repeat exposure of NIR light 24 hours after the initial NIR-PIT to take advantage of the leakage of additional APC deeper into the tumor. However, this post-treatment APC penetration was fully induced within 3 hours, therefore, it is possible that repeated exposures of NIR light could be administered much earlier than 24 hours and still produce the same effects. To test this idea, we compared several modes of delivering additional doses of light after initial NIR-PIT. We found that repeated exposures of NIR light starting 3 hours after initial NIR-PIT produced equal or superior results to more delayed exposures of NIR light. This finding has practical implications of an easy-to-perform regimen as repeated light exposures could be performed during a single day rather than extending the procedure over two days which is the current recommendation.

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