Urinary kallikrein 10 predicts the incurability of gastric cancer
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Takaya Shimura1, Masahide Ebi1,2, Tomonori Yamada3, Tamaki Yamada4, Takahito Katano1, Yu Nojiri1,3, Hiroyasu Iwasaki1,3, Satoshi Nomura1, Noriyuki Hayashi1, Yoshinori Mori1, Hiromi Kataoka1, Marsha A. Moses5,6, Takashi Joh1
1Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan
2Department of Gastroenterology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan
3Department of Gastroenterology, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya Daini Hospital, Nagoya, Japan
4Okazaki Public Health Center, Okazaki, Japan
5Vascular Biology Program, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
6Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
Takaya Shimura, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: biomarker, gastric cancer, inoperability, kallikrein 10, urine
Received: November 08, 2016 Accepted: February 22, 2017 Published: March 22, 2017
The current imaging modalities are not sufficient to identify inoperable tumor factors, including distant metastasis and local invasion. Hence, we conducted this study using urine samples to discover non-invasive biomarkers for the incurability of gastric cancer (GC). Urine samples from 111 GC patients were analyzed in this study. The GC cohort was categorized and analyzed according to disease stage and operability. In the discovery phase, protease protein array analysis identified 3 potential candidate proteins that were elevated in the urine of advanced GC patients compared to early GC patients. Among them, urinary kallikrein 10 (KLK10) was positively associated with tumor stage progression. Moreover, the urinary level of KLK10 (uKLK10) was significantly elevated in the urine of patients with inoperable GC compared to operable GC patients (median, 118 vs. 229; P=0.014). The combination of uKLK10, tumor location and tumor size distinguished operability of GC with an area under the curve of 0.859, 82.4% sensitivity and 86.2% specificity. Disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly shorter in GC patients with high uKLK10 compared to those with low uKLK10 (hazard ratio: 3.30 [95% confidence interval, 1.58-6.90] P<0.001). Immunohistochemical analyses also demonstrated a positive correlation between tumor stage and KLK10 expression in GC tissues (r=0.426, P<0.001). In addition, GC patients with high expression of pathological KLK10 (pKLK10) showed a significantly shorter DFS compared to those with low pKLK10 (hazard ratio: 3.79 [95% confidence interval, 1.27-11.24] P=0.010). uKLK10 is a promising non-invasive biomarker for the inoperability and incurability of GC.
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