A review and outlook in the treatment of osteosarcoma and other deep tumors with photodynamic therapy: from basic to deep
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Wei Yu1,2, Jian Zhu1,2, Yitian Wang1,2, Junjie Wang1,2, Weijing Fang1,2, Kaishun Xia1,2, Jianlin Shao3, Minzu Wu4, Bing Liu1,2, Chengzhen Liang1,2, Chengyi Ye1,2 and Huimin Tao1,2
1 Department of Orthopedics, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China
2 Orthopedics Research Institute of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China
3 La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA, USA
4 Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA
Huimin Tao, email:
Keywords: osteosarcoma; photodynamic; target therapy; nanotechnology; immunotherapy
Received: November 16, 2016 Accepted: February 07, 2017 Published: March 15, 2017
Photodynamic therapy, one of the most promising minimally invasive treatments, has received increasing focus in tumor therapy research, which has been widely applied in treating superficial tumors. Three basic factors - photosensitizer, the light source, and oxidative stress - are responsible for tumor cell cytotoxicity. However, due to insufficient luminous flux and peripheral tissue damage, the utilization of photodynamic therapy is facing a huge limitation in deep tumor therapy. Osteosarcoma is the typical deep tumor, which is the most commonly occurring malignancy in children and adolescents. Despite developments in surgery, high risks of the amputation still threatens the health of osteosarcoma patients. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the field of photodynamic therapy and specifically PDT research in OS treatment modalities. In addition, we also provide some novel suggestions, which could potentially be a breakthrough in PDT-induced OS therapies. PDT has the potential to become an effective therapy while the its limitations still present when applied on the treatment of OS or other types of deep tumors. Thus, more researches and studies in the field are required.
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