Clinical Research Papers:

Left ventricular longitudinal strain in soccer referees

Luigi Gianturco _, Bruno Bodini, Vincenzo Gianturco, Giuseppina Lippo, Agnese Solbiati and Maurizio Turiel

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:39766-39773. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.15242

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Luigi Gianturco1, Bruno Bodini2, Vincenzo Gianturco3, Giuseppina Lippo4, Agnese Solbiati1 and Maurizio Turiel1

1 IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute, Cardiology Unit, Milan, Italy

2 IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute, Rehabilitation Unit, Milan, Italy

3 Foro Italico University of Rome, Rome, Italy

4 Department of Occupational and Environmental Health University of Milan, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico Mangiagalli Regina Elena, Milan, Italy

Correspondence to:

Luigi Gianturco, email:

Keywords: soccer refereeing; VO2max; speckle tracking echocardiography; myocardial function; LV mechanics

Received: October 13, 2016 Accepted: December 31, 2016 Published: February 09, 2017


Along the years, the analysis of soccer referees perfomance has interested the experts and we can find several types of studies in literature using in particular cardiac imaging. The aim of this retrospective study was to observe relationship between VO2max uptake and some conventional and not-conventional echocardiographic parameters. In order to perform this evaluation, we have enrolled 20 referees, belonging to Italian Soccer Referees’ Association and we have investigated cardiovascular profile of them. We found a strong direct relationship between VO2max and global longitudinal strain of left ventricle assessed by means of speckle tracking echocardiographic analysis (R2=0.8464). The most common classic echocardiographic indexes have showed mild relations (respectively, VO2max vs EF: R2=0.4444; VO2max vs LV indexed mass: R2=0.2268). Therefore, our study suggests that longitudinal strain could be proposed as a specific echocardiographic parameter to evaluate the soccer referees performance.

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PII: 15242