Long-term administration of tacrolimus and everolimus prevents high cholesterol-high fructose-induced steatosis in C57BL/6J mice by inhibiting de-novo lipogenesis
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Sharma Love1,2, Malik A. Mudasir1, Subhash C. Bhardwaj3, Gurdarshan Singh1,2, Sheikh A. Tasduq1,2
1PK-PD and Toxicology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu Tawi, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Chennai, India
3Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Keywords: NAFLD, tacrolimus, everolimus, mTOR, lipogenesis
Received: June 07, 2016 Accepted: November 02, 2016 Published: February 08, 2017
Aim: To investigate the effects of tacrolimus (TC) and everolimus (EV) on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by high fat, high cholesterol and fructose (fast food) diet in C57BL/6J mice.
Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n=8). 1) Standard Chow (SC); 2) Fast food (FF) diet; 3) FF + Tacrolimus (TC, 1mg/kg) and; 4) FF + Everolimus (EV, 1mg/kg) and treated for 16 weeks. Serum and tissue samples were analyzed for evidence of inflammation, fibrosis, lipogenesis, and apoptosis.
Results: TC and EV treatments significantly reduced the hepatic lipid accumulation, improved liver-body weight ratio, blood biochemistry, and insulin resistance in mice fed with FF diet. However, inflammation, enlarged portal tracts, and fibrosis were pronounced in EV treated group. The lipogenic parameters, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1(SREBP-1), mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR), Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) and fatty acid translocase (CD36) were significantly down-regulated in livers of TC and EV treated groups as compared to FF group. TC improved Bcl2/Bax ratio, decreased apoptosis, CYP2E1 protein expression and liver fibrosis levels, however, EV offered no such protection. Further, in an In-vitro model of lipotoxicity using the mouse hepatocyte (AML-12) cell line, treatment with TC and EV significantly reduced lipid accumulation and lipogenic and apoptotic markers induced with palmitic acid.
Conclusion: In FF diet induced model of NASH, both TC and EV inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation and improved metabolic parameters such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, mice administered with EV exhibited inflammatory and fibrotic responses despite reduced hepatic steatosis.
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