Rectal/urinary toxicity after hypofractionated vs conventional radiotherapy in low/intermediate risk localized prostate cancer: systematic review and meta analysis

Rossella Di Franco _, Valentina Borzillo, Vincenzo Ravo, Gianluca Ametrano, Sara Falivene, Fabrizio Cammarota, Sabrina Rossetti, Francesco Jacopo Romano, Carmine D’Aniello, Carla Cavaliere, Gelsomina Iovane, Raffaele Piscitelli, Massimiliano Berretta, Paolo Muto and Gaetano Facchini

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:17383-17395. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14798

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Rossella Di Franco1,2, Valentina Borzillo2, Vincenzo Ravo2, Gianluca Ametrano1,2, Sara Falivene2, Fabrizio Cammarota2, Sabrina Rossetti1, Francesco Jacopo Romano1, Carmine D’Aniello1,3, Carla Cavaliere1,4, Gelsomina Iovane1,5, Raffaele Piscitelli1, Massimiliano Berretta6, Paolo Muto2 and Gaetano Facchini1,5

1 Progetto ONCONET2.0 – Linea progettuale 14 per l’implementazione della prevenzione e diagnosi precoce del tumore alla prostata e testicolo – Regione Campania, Italy

2 Radiation Oncology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori ‘Fondazione Giovanni Pascale’ – IRCCS, Napoli, Italy

3 Division of Medical Oncology, A.O.R.N. dei COLLI “Ospedali Monaldi-Cotugno-CTO”, Napoli

4 Department of Onco-Ematology Medical Oncology, S.G. Moscati Hospital of Taranto, Taranto, Italy

5 Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Uro-Gynaecological Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori ‘Fondazione G. Pascale’ - IRCCS , Naples , Italy

6 Department of Medical Oncology, CRO Aviano, National Cancer Institute, Aviano, Italy

Correspondence to:

Rossella Di Franco, email:

Keywords: prostate cancer; radiotherapy; toxicity; meta-analysis; review

Received: October 12, 2016 Accepted: December 07, 2016 Published: January 22, 2017


Purpose: The aim of this review was to compare radiation toxicity in Localized Prostate Cancer (LPC) patients who underwent conventional fractionation (CV), hypofractionated (HYPO) or extreme hypofractionated (eHYPO) radiotherapy. We analyzed the impact of technological innovation on the management of prostate cancer, attempting to make a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

Methods: PubMed database has been explored for studies concerning acute and late urinary/gastrointestinal toxicity in low/intermediate risk LPC patients after receiving radiotherapy. Studies were then gathered into 5 groups: detected acute and chronic toxicity data from phase II non randomized trials were analyzed and Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated by comparing the number of patients with G0-1 toxicity and those with toxicity > G2 in the studied groups. A meta-analysis of prospective randomized trials was also carried out.

Results: The initial search yielded 575 results, but only 32 manuscripts met all eligibility requirements: in terms of radiation-induced side effects, such as gastrointestinal and genitourinary acute and late toxicity, hypofractionated 3DCRT seemed to be more advantageous than 3DCRT with conventional fractionation as well as IMRT with conventional fractionation compared to 3DCRT with conventional fractionation; furthermore, IMRT hypofractionated technique appeared more advantageous than IMRT with conventional fractionation in late toxicities. Randomized trials meta-analysis disclosed an advantage in terms of acute gastrointestinal and late genitourinary toxicity for Hypofractionated schemes.

Conclusions: Although our analysis pointed out a more favorable toxicity profile in terms of gastrointestinal acute side effects of conventional radiotherapy schemes compared to hypofractionated ones, prospective randomized trials are needed to better understand the real incidence of rectal and urinary toxicity in patients receiving radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

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