CCL24 contributes to HCC malignancy via RhoB- VEGFA-VEGFR2 angiogenesis pathway and indicates poor prognosis
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Lei Jin1,*, Wei-Ren Liu1,*, Meng-Xin Tian1,*, Xi-Fei Jiang1, Han Wang1, Pei-Yun Zhou1, Zhen-Bin Ding1, Yuan-Fei Peng1, Zhi Dai1, Shuang-Jian Qiu1, Jian Zhou1,2, Jia Fan1,2, Ying-Hong Shi1
1Department of Liver Surgery, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China
2Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Ying-Hong Shi, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: CCL24, HCC, RhoB, VEGFA, prognosis
Received: May 07, 2016 Accepted: November 21, 2016 Published: December 22, 2016
CCL24 is one chemotactic factor extensively studied in airway inflammation and colorectal cancer but less studied in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) retrospectively. So HCC tissue microarray (TMA) was used to estimate relationship between CCL24 and prognosis, cell experiments were conducted to study its influence for HCC cell biological behavior. CCL24 was injected to nude mice to monitor tumor formation and pulmonary metastasis; qRT-PCR, western blot and Immunohistochemistry were used to explore potential mechanism. CCL24 plays roles in target cells via its downstream CCR3, or it is regulated by Type 2 helper T cells (Th2 cell) factors, so immune related experiments were conducted. Meanwhile, Rho GTPase family have close relation not only with T cell priming, but with neovascularization; CCL24 contributes to neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration via CCR3, so Rho GTPase family, Th2 cell factors, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells were used to uncover their trafficking. Ultimate validation was confirmed by small interfering RNA. Results showed CCL24 expression was higher in caner tissues than adjacent normal tissues, it could contribute to proliferation, migration, and invasion in HCCs, could accelerate pulmonary metastasis, promote HUVECs tube formation. Th2 cell factors were irrelevant with CCL24 in HCCs; and RhoB, VEGFA, and VEGFR2 correlated with CCL24 in both mRNA and protein level. Downstream RhoB-VEGFA signaling pathway was validated by siRhoB and siVEGFA inhibition. In a word, CCL24 contributes to HCC malignancy via RhoB-VEGFA-VEGFR2 angiogenesis pathway and indicates poor prognosis, which urges us to study further CCL24 effects on diagnosis and potential therapy for HCC.
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