Meta-prediction of MTHFR gene polymorphism-mutations, air pollution, and risks of leukemia among world populations
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Shin-Yu A. Lien1,2, Lufei Young3, Bih-Shya Gau4, S. Pamela K. Shiao3
1School of Nursing, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Branch, Taoyuan, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
3College of Nursing, Augusta University, Augusta, Gerogia, USA
4School of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
S. Pamela K. Shiao, email: [email protected]
Keywords: meta-analysis, meta-prediction, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, leukemia, air pollution
Received: April 15, 2016 Accepted: December 05, 2016 Published: December 10, 2016
The major objective of this study was to examine the association between Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and the risk of various types of leukemias across the lifespans of children and adults by using the meta-predictive techniques. The secondary objective was to examine the interactions among epigenetic risk factors (including air pollution), MTHFR polymorphisms, and the risks of developing leukemia. We completed a comprehensive search of 6 databases to find 54 studies (10,033 leukemia cases and 15,835 controls) for MTHFR 677, and 43 studies (8,868 cases and 14,301 controls) for MTHFR 1298, published from 1999 to 2014. The results revealed that, in European populations; childhood populations; children from Europe, East Asia, and America; and children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), MTHFR 677 polymorphisms (both TT and CT types together and individually) are protective, while CC wildtype was leukemogenic. In addition, MTHFR 1298 polymorphisms were protective against ALL and acute myeloid leukemia in European children, and in chronic myeloid leukemia in all adults worldwide and American adults. Air pollution played a role in the increased polymorphisms of MTHFR 677 genotypes in childhood leukemia.
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