Smoking increases risks of all-cause and breast cancer specific mortality in breast cancer individuals: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies involving 39725 breast cancer cases
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Kang Wang1, Feng Li2, Xiang Zhang1, Zhuyue Li3, Hongyuan Li1
1Department of Endocrine and Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China
2Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010, China
3Department of Nursing, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China
Hongyuan Li, email: email@example.com
Keywords: smoking, breast cancer survival, dose-response, all-cause mortality, breast cancer specific mortality
Received: June 21, 2016 Accepted: October 17, 2016 Published: November 15, 2016
Smoking is associated with the risks of mortality from breast cancer (BC) or all causes in BC survivors. Two-stage dose-response meta-analysis was conducted. A search of PubMed and Embase was performed, and a random-effect model was used to yield summary hazard ratios (HRs). Eleven prospective cohort studies were included. The summary HR per 10 cigarettes/day, 10 pack-years, 10 years increase were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.16), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.06–1.12), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.06–1.14) for BC specific mortality, and 1.15 (95% CI = 1.10–1.19), 1.15 (95% CI = 1.10–1.20), 1.17 (95% CI = 1.11–1.23) for all-cause mortality, respectively. The linear or non-linear associations between smoking and risks of mortality from BC or all causes were revealed. Subgroup analyses suggested a positive association between ever or former smoking and the risk of all-cause mortality in BC patients, especially in high doses consumption. In conclusion, higher smoking intensity, more cumulative amount of cigarettes consumption and longer time for smoking is associated with elevated risk of mortality from BC and all causes in BC individuals. The results regarding smoking cessation and “ever or former” smokers should be treated with caution due to limited studies.
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