Research Papers: Pathology:
Clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of type II and type I focal cortical dysplasia
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Kun Yao1,*, Zejun Duan1,*, Jian Zhou2, Lin Li2, Feng Zhai2, Yanting Dong3, Xiaoyan Wang4, Zhong Ma1, Yu Bian1, Xueling Qi1 and Liang Li5
1 Department of Pathology, San Bo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Haidian, Beijng, P. R. China
2 Department of Neurosurgery, San Bo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, Haidian, Beijng, P. R. China
3 The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, P. R. China
4 Beijing Health Vocational College, Xicheng, Beijing, P. R. China
5 Department of Pathology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P.R. China
* These authors are co-first authors
Xueling Qi, email:
Liang Li, email:
Keywords: epilepsy; focal cortical dysplasia type II; focal cortical dysplasia type I; pathology; imaging; Pathology Section
Received: March 26, 2016 Accepted: August 24, 2016 Published: November 01, 2016
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) II and I are major causes for drug-resistant epilepsy. In order to gain insight into the possible correlations between FCD II and FCD I, different clinical characteristics and immunohistochemical expression characteristics in FCD I and II were analyzed. The median age of onset and duration of epilepsy in FCD I and FCD II patients were 2.1 years and 5.3 years vs 2.4 years and 4.5 years. Therefore, the median age of onset and duration of epilepsy were similar in the two groups. Pathological lesions were predominantly located in frontal lobe in FCD II and temporal in FCD I. Significantly more signal abnormalities in FLAIR and T2 images were demonstrated in FCD II than FCD I. The rate of satisfied seizure outcome was relative higher in FCDII patients (95.12%) than that in FCDI group (84.6%). Furthermore, we detected expressions of progenitor cell proteins and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade activation protein in FCDs. Results showed that sex-determiningregion Y-box 2(SOX2) , Kruppel-likefactor 4 (KLF4) and phospho-S6 ribosomal proteins (ser240/244 or ser235/236) were expressed in FCDII group but not in FCD I. Overall, this study unveils FCD I and II exhibit distinct clinical and immunohistochemical expression characteristics, revealing different pathogenic mechanisms.
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