Research Papers:

The serum protein profile of early parity which induces protection against breast cancer

Christina Gutierrez Bracamontes, Rebecca Lopez-Valdez, Ramadevi Subramani, Arunkumar Arumugam, Sushmita Nandy, Venkatesh Rajamanickam, Vignesh Ravichandran and Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:82538-82553. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.12757

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Christina Gutierrez Bracamontes1,*, Rebecca Lopez-Valdez1,*, Ramadevi Subramani1,*, Arunkumar Arumugam1, Sushmita Nandy1, Venkatesh Rajamanickam2, Vignesh Ravichandran3, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy1,4

1Center of Emphasis in Cancer Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, TX 79905, USA

2Division of Genetic Epidemiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA

3Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA

4Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso-Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, El Paso, TX 79905, USA

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to:

Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy, email: [email protected]

Keywords: parity, breast cancer risk, serum proteins, protection, biomarkers

Received: June 15, 2016     Accepted: October 03, 2016     Published: October 19, 2016


Early parity reduces the risk of breast cancer in women while nulliparity and late parity increase the risk of breast cancer. In order to translate this protection to women where early pregnancy is not feasible, much work has focused on understanding how parity confers protection against breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs is still not well understood. Healthy parous and nulliparous women were recruited for this study. We assessed serum protein profiles of early parous, late parous, and nulliparous women using the Phospho Explorer antibody array. Significantly altered proteins identified were validated by Western blot analysis. In silico analysis was performed with the data obtained. Our findings indicate increased phosphorylation levels of CDK1, AKT1 and Epo-R increased cell cycle and cell proliferation in late/nulliparous women. Increased levels of LIMK1, paxillin, caveolin-1, and tyrosine hydroxylase in late/nulliparous women demonstrate enhanced cell stress while decreased activity of p-p53 and pRAD51 in late/nulliparous women indicates decreased apoptosis and increased genomic instability. Further, increased levels of pFAK, pCD3zeta, pSTAT5B, MAP3K8 in early parous women favor enhanced innate/adaptive immunity. Overall, we have identified a unique protein signature that is responsible for the decreased risk of breast cancer and these proteins can also serve as biomarkers to predict the risk of breast cancer.

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