Visualization of early prostatic adenocarcinoma as a stem cell disease
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Maggie Y. Jiang1,3, Tammy L. Lee4, Su-Shin Hao3, Sepi Mahooti2, Stephen M. Baird2, Daniel J. Donoghue1,4, Martin Haas1,3
1Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3Division of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Daniel J. Donoghue, email: [email protected]
Keywords: cancer stem cell, prostatic adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, stem cell antigen
Received: August 11, 2016 Accepted: October 07, 2016 Published: October 18, 2016
Prostate Cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States, and the third leading cause of cancer death among men in Europe. We have previously shown that cells possessing Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) characteristics can be grown from human PrCa tissue harvested at the time of prostatectomy. However, the cellular origin of these CSCs was not previously known. In most cases, simple hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections are sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma (PrCa) in needle biopsy samples. We utilized six different antibodies specific for stem cell antigens to examine paraffin sections of PrCa taken at the time of needle-biopsy diagnosis. These antisera were specific for CD44, CD133, ALDH7A1, LGR-5, Oct-4 and NANOG. We demonstrate specific staining of tumor cells with all six antisera specific for stem cell antigens. Some of these antibodies also react with cells of hyperplastic glands, but the patterns of reactivity differ from those of malignant glands. These findings demonstrate that at the time of diagnosis, PrCa consists of cells exhibiting properties of CSCs and consistent with the possibility that PrCa is a stem cell disease.
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