Targeted ultra-deep sequencing unveils a lack of driver-gene mutations linking non-hereditary gastrointestinal stromal tumors and highly prevalent second primary malignancies: random or nonrandom, that is the question
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Bo-Ru Lai1,*, Yu-Tung Wu1,*, Yung-Chia Kuo2, Hung-Chih Hsu2, Jen-Shi Chen2, Tse-Ching Chen3, Ren-Chin Wu3, Cheng-Tang Chiu4, Chun-Nan Yeh1, Ta-Sen Yeh1
1Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
2Department of Hematology-Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
3Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
4Department of Gastroenterology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Ta-Sen Yeh, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: GIST, second primary cancer, cancer driver gene, c kit, colorectal cancer
Received: June 08, 2016 Accepted: September 17, 2016 Published: October 28, 2016
The association of non-hereditary (sporadic) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and second primary malignancies is known to be nonrandom, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, 136 of 749 (18.1%) patients with sporadic GISTs were found to have additional associated cancers, with gastrointestinal and genitourinary/gynecologic/breast cancers being the most prevalent. Gene mutations in GISTs and their associated colorectal cancers (CRCs) (n=9) were analyzed using a panel of 409 cancer-related genes, while a separate group of 40 sporadic CRCs not associated with GISTs served as controls. All 9 of the GISTs had either KIT (8 of 9) or PDGFRA (1 of 9) mutations that were not present in their associated CRCs. Conversely, all but one of the 9 GIST-associated CRCs exhibited an APC mutation, a TP53 mutation or both, while none of their corresponding GISTs harbored either APC or TP53 mutations. The genetic profile of CRCs with and without associated GISTs did not differ. Although population-based studies and case series worldwide, including ours, have unanimously indicated that the GIST-CRC association is nonrandom, our targeted ultra-deep sequencing unveiled a lack of driver-gene mutations linking sporadic GISTs to highly prevalent second primaries. Further studies are needed to elucidate other genetic alterations that may be responsible for this puzzling contradiction.
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