Research Papers:

In vitro comparison of conventional hyperthermia and modulated electro-hyperthermia

Kai-Lin Yang, Cheng-Chung Huang, Mau-Shin Chi, Hsin-Chien Chiang, Yu-Shan Wang, Chien-Chung Hsia, Gabor Andocs, Hsin-Ell Wang and Kwan-Hwa Chi _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:84082-84092. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11444

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Kai-Lin Yang1,2,3, Cheng-Chung Huang1, Mau-Shin Chi1, Hsin-Chien Chiang1, Yu-Shan Wang1, Chien-Chung Hsia4, Gabor Andocs5, Hsin-Ell Wang2, Kwan-Hwa Chi1,2,6

1Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

2Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

3School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, Taiwan

4Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan

5Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Japan

6Institute of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Correspondence to:

Kwan-Hwa Chi, email: [email protected]

Hsin-Ell Wang, email: [email protected]

Keywords: modulated electro-hyperthermia, conventional capacitive coupling hyperthermia, water bath, cytotoxicity, cell membrane

Received: May 03, 2016     Accepted: August 11, 2016     Published: August 20, 2016


Radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia (HT) treatments for cancer include conventional capacitive coupling hyperthermia (cCHT) and modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT). In this study, we directly compared these methods with regard to in vitro cytotoxicity and mechanisms of action under isothermal conditions. Hepatoma (HepG2) cells were exposed to HT treatment (42°C for 30 min) using mEHT, cCHT or a water bath. mEHT produced a much higher apoptosis rate (43.1% ± 5.8%) than cCHT (10.0% ± 0.6%), the water bath (8.4% ± 1.7%) or a 37°C control (6.6% ± 1.1%). The apoptosis-inducing effect of mEHT at 42°C was similar to that achieved with a water bath at 46°C. mEHT also increased expression of caspase-3, 8 and 9. All three hyperthermia methods increased intracellular heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) levels, but only mEHT greatly increased the release of Hsp70 from cells. Calreticulin and E-cadherin levels in the cell membrane also increased after mEHT treatment, but not after cCHT or water bath. These results suggest that mEHT selectively deposits energy on the cell membrane and may be a useful treatment modality that targets cancer cell membranes.

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