Does tumor size improve the accuracy of prognostic prediction in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after surgical resection?
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Hongdian Zhang1,*, Peng Tang1,*, Xiaohui Miao2,*, Yongyin Gao3, Xiaobin Shang1, Lei Gong1, Zhao Ma1, Mingjian Yang1, Hongjing Jiang1, Zhongli Zhan4, Bin Meng4, Zhentao Yu1
1Department of Esophageal Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy of Tianjin City, Tianjin 300060, China
2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tianjin Haihe Hospital, Tianjin 300350, China
3Department of Cardiopulmonary Function, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy of Tianjin City, Tianjin 300060, China
4Department of Pathology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy of Tianjin City, Tianjin 300060, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Zhentao Yu, email: [email protected]
Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, tumor size, TNM staging, predictive accuracy, prognosis
Received: February 21, 2016 Accepted: August 09, 2016 Published: August 13, 2016
This study aimed to investigate whether the inclusion of tumor size could improve the prognostic accuracy in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). A total of 387 patients with ESCC who underwent curative resection were enrolled in this analysis. The patients were categorized into small-sized tumors (SSTs) and large-sized tumors (LSTs) using an appropriate cut-off point for tumor size. Kaplan–Meier survival curve and log–rank test were used to evaluate the prognostic value of tumor size. A Cox regression model was adopted for multivariate analysis. Their accuracy was compared based on the presence or absence of tumor size. Using 3.5 cm as the optimal cut-off point, 228 and 159 patients presented with LSTs (≥ 3.5 cm) and SSTs (< 3.5 cm), respectively. The patients with LSTs had significantly worse prognoses than patients with SSTs (23.9% vs. 43.2%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size, histological type, invasion depth, and lymph node metastasis were independent predictors of overall survival. The addition of tumor size to the AJCC TNM staging improved the predictive accuracy of the 5-year survival rate by 3.9%. Further study showed that tumor size and T stage were independent predictors of the prognosis of node-negative patients, and the combination of tumor size and T stage improved the predictive accuracy by 3.7%. In conclusion, tumor size is indeed a simple and practical prognostic factor in patients with ESCC. It can be used to improve the prognostic accuracy of the current TNM staging, especially for patients with node-negative disease.
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