Research Papers:

UBE2C cell-free RNA in urine can discriminate between bladder cancer and hematuria

Won Tae Kim, Pildu Jeong, Chunri Yan, Ye Hwan Kim, Il-Seok Lee, Ho-Won Kang, Yong-June Kim, Sang-Cheol Lee, Sang Jin Kim, Yong Tae Kim, Sung-Kwon Moon, Yung-Hyun Choi, Isaac Yi Kim, Seok Joong Yun and Wun-Jae Kim _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:58193-58202. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11277

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Won Tae Kim1, Pildu Jeong1, Chunri Yan1, Ye Hwan Kim1, Il-Seok Lee1, Ho-Won Kang1, Yong-June Kim1, Sang-Cheol Lee1, Sang Jin Kim2,3, Yong Tae Kim3, Sung-Kwon Moon4, Yung-Hyun Choi5, Isaac Yi Kim6, Seok Joong Yun1, Wun-Jae Kim1

1Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Chungbuk, South Korea

2Department of Urology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea

3Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea

4School of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, South Korea

5Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan, South Korea

6Section of Urological Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

Correspondence to:

Wun-Jae Kim, email: [email protected]

Seok Joong Yun, email: [email protected]

Keywords: biomarkers, RNA, urinary bladder neoplasms, urine

Received: January 12, 2016     Accepted: August 08, 2016     Published: August 12, 2016


Background: There is growing interest in circulating nucleic acids as cancer detection biomarkers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify a key urinary cell-free RNA marker that may assist in the diagnosis of BC.

Results: Five cell-free RNAs were selected as candidate cell-free RNAs from tissue microarray data. An area under the curve (AUC) cut-off value of 0.7 in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis identified four urinary cell-free RNAs for further analysis (CDC20, ESM1, UBE2C, and CA9; AUC = 0.716, 0.704, 0.721, and 0.702, respectively). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that high expression of UBE2C was significantly associated with BC (OR, 1.754; CI, 1.147–2.682; p = 0.010). Analysis of UBE2C expression in urine samples from BC patients and hematuria controls yielded an AUC of 0.839, with a sensitivity of 82.5% and a specificity of 76.2%. UBE2C levels was significantly increased in G2 and G3 tumors compared to normal controls (p <0.001, respectively).

Materials and Methods: Urine samples from 212 BC patients and 106 normal controls (64 healthy individuals and 42 with hematuria) were examined. The candidate cell-free RNAs identified from tissue microarrays derived from BC and normal control tissues was then measured in the urine samples.

Conclusions: The levels of urinary UBE2C cell-free RNA were significantly higher in BC samples than in normal and hematuria control samples. The higher levels of urinary UBE2C cell-free RNA in BC might reflect high expression in BC tissues. Therefore, urinary UBE2C cell-free RNA may be a valuable diagnostic marker for BC.

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