The antibiotic chloramphenicol may be an effective new agent for inhibiting the growth of multiple myeloma
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Faqing Tian1,*, Chunyan Wang3,*, Meiqin Tang1, Juheng Li1, Xiaohui Cheng1, Sihan Zhang2, Delan Ji1, Yingcai Huang1, Huiqing Li1
1Department of Hematology, Longgang District People’s Hospital of Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
2Department of Rheumatology, Longgang District People’s Hospital of Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
3Department of Rheumatology, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Gansu, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Faqing Tian, email: [email protected]
Keywords: chloramphenicol, multiple myeloma, adenosine triphosphate, apoptosis
Received: December 21, 2015 Accepted: June 29, 2016 Published: July 16, 2016
Chloramphenicol is an old antibiotic that also inhibits mammalian mitochondrial protein synthesis. Our studies demonstrated that chloramphenicol is highly cytotoxic to myeloma cells, acting in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Chloramphenicol sharply suppressed ATP levels in myeloma cells at concentrations ≥ 25 μg/mL. Colorimetric and clonogenic assays indicate that chloramphenicol inhibits growth of myeloma cell lines at concentrations ≥ 50 μg/mL, and inhibits primary myeloma cell growth at concentrations ≥ 25 μg/mL. Flow cytometry and Western blotting showed that chloramphenicol induces myeloma cell apoptosis at concentrations ≥ 50 μg/mL. Chloramphenicol increased levels of cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3, suggesting that myeloma cell apoptosis occurs through the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. It thus appears chloramphenicol is not only an old antibiotic, it is also a potential cytotoxic agent effective against myeloma cells. This suggests chloramphenicol may be an effective “new” drug for the treatment of myeloma.
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