Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a report from the PETRUS prospective study
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Christophe Massard1,2,*, Marianne Oulhen2,3,*, Sylvestre Le Moulec4, Nathalie Auger5, Stéphanie Foulon6, Aurélie Abou-Lovergne1, Fanny Billiot2,3, Alexander Valent5, Virginie Marty7, Yohann Loriot1,2, Karim Fizazi1,2, Philippe Vielh2,3,5,#, Francoise Farace2,3,#
1Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Department of Medicine, F-94805, Villejuif, France
2INSERM, U981 “Identification of Molecular Predictors and New Targets for Cancer Treatment”, F-94805, Villejuif, France
3Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, “Circulating Tumor Cells” Translational Platform, AMMICA CNRS UMS3655 – INSERM US23, F-94805, Villejuif, France
4Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées du Val de Grâce, Department of Oncology, F-75005, Paris, France
5Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Department of Biopathology, F-94805, Villejuif, France
6Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, F-94805, Villejuif, France
7Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, “Histo Cytopathology” Translational Platform, AMMICA CNRS UMS3655 – INSERM US23, F-94805, Villejuif, France
*These authors contributed equally to the study
#These authors contributed equally to the study
Francoise Farace, email: [email protected]
Keywords: prostate cancer, biopsy, circulating tumor cells, androgen receptor, TMPRSS2-ERG translocation
Received: March 24, 2016 Accepted: June 17, 2016 Published: July 04, 2016
Molecular characterization of cancer samples is hampered by tumor tissue availability in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. We reported the results of prospective PETRUS study of biomarker assessment in paired primary prostatic tumors, metastatic biopsies and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Among 54 mCRPC patients enrolled, 38 (70%) had biopsies containing more than 50% tumour cells. 28 (52%) patients were analyzed for both tissue samples and CTCs. FISH for AR-amplification and TMPRSS2-ERG translocation were successful in 54% and 32% in metastatic biopsies and primary tumors, respectively. By comparing CellSearch and filtration (ISET)-enrichment combined to four color immunofluorescent staining, we showed that CellSearch and ISET isolated distinct subpopulations of CTCs: CTCs undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, CTC clusters and large CTCs with cytomorphological characteristics but no detectable markers were isolated using ISET. Epithelial CTCs detected by the CellSearch were mostly lost during the ISET-filtration. AR-amplification was detected in CellSearch-captured CTCs, but not in ISET-enriched CTCs which harbor exclusively AR gain of copies. Eighty-eight percent concordance for ERG-rearrangement was observed between metastatic biopsies and CTCs even if additional ERG-alteration patterns were detected in ISET-enriched CTCs indicating a higher heterogeneity in CTCs.
Molecular screening of metastatic biopsies is achievable in a multicenter context. Our data indicate that CTCs detected by the CellSearch and the ISET-filtration systems are not only phenotypically but also genetically different. Close attention must be paid to CTC characterization since neither approach tested here fully reflects the tremendous phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity present in CTCs from mCRPC patients.
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