Oncotarget

Research Papers: Gerotarget (Focus on Aging):

Anticoagulants inhibit proteolytic clearance of plasma amyloid beta

Lu Yang, Arup Bhattacharya, Yun Li and Yuesheng Zhang _

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Oncotarget. 2018; 9:5614-5626. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.23718

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Abstract

Lu Yang1, Arup Bhattacharya1, Yun Li1,2 and Yuesheng Zhang1,3

1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA

2Department of Urology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA

3Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA

Correspondence to:

Yuesheng Zhang, email: yuesheng.zhang@roswellpark.org

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid beta; amyloid beta degradation; anticoagulant; Gerotarget

Received: November 09, 2017     Accepted: December 22, 2017     Published: December 27, 2017

ABSTRACT

We recently discovered a plasma proteolysis pathway, termed the FXII-FVII pathway which is composed of coagulation proteases, and found it to be mainly responsible for the clearance of Aβ42 in the plasma in mice. Aβ42 and Aβ40 are the main Aβ forms in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, in vitro assays, wild type (WT) mice and J20 mice (a transgenic AD model) are used to assess the degradation of Aβ40 and Aβ42 by the FXII-FVII pathway and the impact of anticoagulants on such degradation. Four clinically available and mechanistically distinct anticoagulants are evaluated, including dabigatran, enoxaparin (EP), rivaroxaban and warfarin. Each anticoagulant significantly elevates plasma level of synthetic Aβ42 in WT mice, among which EP is the most effective. The differential efficacies of the anticoagulants in elevating plasma Aβ42 level match closely with their inhibitory mechanisms towards the FXII-FVII pathway. Plasma Aβ40 is also degraded by the FXII-FVII pathway and is protected by EP. Moreover, the FXII-FVII pathway is significantly activated in J20 mice, but EP inhibits the activation and significantly elevates plasma levels of both Aβ40 and Aβ42. Taken together, our results shed new light on Aβ metabolism, reveal a novel function of anticoagulants, and suggest a novel approach to potentially developing plasma Aβ as an AD biomarker.


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