Basal level of FANCD2 monoubiquitination is required for the maintenance of a sufficient number of licensed-replication origins to fire at a normal rate
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Jayabal Panneerselvam1, Anna Pickering1, Bing Han1, Liantao Li1,2, Junnian Zheng2, Jun Zhang3, Yanbin Zhang4, and Peiwen Fei1,
1 University of Hawaii Cancer Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI
2 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biological Cancer Therapy, Xuzhou Medical College, China
3 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
4 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL
Peiwen Fei, email:
Keywords: Replication, FANCD2
Received: February 11, 2014 Accepted: March 11, 2014 Published: March 13, 2014
Normal DNA replication starts following the stepwise recruitment of replication initiators to assemble Mini-chromosome Maintenance (MCM) 2-7 protein complexes at an adequate amount of DNA replication origins. Under normal conditions, the monoubiquitination of Fanconi Anemia (FA) group D2 protein (FANCD2) occurs in each S-phase of cell cycle, which is the basal level of FANCD2 monoubiquitination. However, little is known regarding the roles of this basal level of monoubiquitinated FANCD2. Here we show that monoubiquitinated FANCD2 in each S-phase of normal cell cycle is essential for replication origins to fire at a normal rate. We found that the basal level of the monoubiquitinated FANCD2 can interact with replication origins as well as mini-chromosome maintenance protein 3 (MCM3) in an S-phase specific manner to secure an enough number of the licensed-origins to fire. Non-monoubiquitinated FANCD2 or mutant MCM3 lacking AA 477-480 responsible for interacting with FANCD2 can lead to an insufficient amount of licensed origins to fire and, thereby, enlarged intervals between the fired origins. Our results demonstrate that the monoubiquitinated FANCD2 in each S-phase of normal cell cycle is required to maintain an enough number of licensed origins to initiate the normal DNA replication. This finding is the first to provide insights into how FANCD2 functions under normal condition of cell cycle to maintain genome stability, as well as resulting implications in the strategic improvement for the fight against human cancer.
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