Dysfunctional oxidative phosphorylation makes malignant melanoma cells addicted to glycolysis driven by the V600EBRAF oncogene
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Arnaldur Hall1,2, Kathrine Damm Meyle3, Marina Krarup Lange1, Martin Klima1, May Sanderhoff4, Christina Dahl5, Cecilie Abildgaard5, Katrine Thorup5, Seyed Moein Moghimi2, Per Bo Jensen4, Jiri Bartek1, Per Guldberg5 and Claus Christensen1
1 Genome Integrity Unit, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Denmark
2 Centre for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
3 Research Unit for Dietary Studies Institute of Preventive Medicine Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, Denmark
4 Seahorse Bioscience Europa, Copenhagen, Denmark
5 Diet, Genes and Environment Unit, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Denmark
Jiri Bartek, email:
Keywords: Oncogene addiction, melanoma, V600EBRAF, the Warburg effect, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation
Received: April 4, 2013 Accepted: April 6, 2013 Published: April 8, 2013
Oncogene addiction describes how cancer cells exhibit dependence on single oncogenes to escape apoptosis and senescence. While oncogene addiction constitutes the basis for new cancer treatment strategies targeting individual kinases and pathways activated by oncogenic mutations, the biochemical basis for this addiction is largely unknown. Here we provide evidence for a metabolic rationale behind the addiction to V600EBRAF in two malignant melanoma cell lines. Both cell lines display a striking addiction to glycolysis due to underlying dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Notably, even minor reductions in glycolytic activity lead to increased OXPHOS activity (reversed Warburg effect), however the mitochondria are unable to sustain ATP production. We show that V600EBRAF upholds the activity of glycolysis and therefore the addiction to glycolysis de facto becomes an addiction to V600EBRAF. Finally, the senescence response associated with inhibition of V600EBRAF is rescued by overexpression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), providing direct evidence that oncogene addiction rests on a metabolic foundation.
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