Research Papers: Gerotarget (Focus on Aging):
Replication stress induced site-specific phosphorylation targets WRN to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway
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Fengtao Su1, Souparno Bhattacharya1, Salim Abdisalaam1, Shibani Mukherjee2, Hirohiko Yajima1,4, Yanyong Yang1, Ritu Mishra1, Kalayarasan Srinivasan1, Subroto Ghose2, David J. Chen1, Steven M. Yannone3 and Aroumougame Asaithamby1
1 Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
2 Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
3 Life Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
4 Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan
Aroumougame Asaithamby, email:
Keywords: Werner syndrome protein, Werner syndrome, replication stress, post-translational modification,chromosome instability, Gerotarget
Received: November 06, 2015 Accepted: November 23, 2015 Published: December 18, 2015
Faithful and complete genome replication in human cells is essential for preventing the accumulation of cancer-promoting mutations. WRN, the protein defective in Werner syndrome, plays critical roles in preventing replication stress, chromosome instability, and tumorigenesis. Herein, we report that ATR-mediated WRN phosphorylation is needed for DNA replication and repair upon replication stress. A serine residue, S1141, in WRN is phosphorylated in vivo by the ATR kinase in response to replication stress. ATR-mediated WRN S1141 phosphorylation leads to ubiquitination of WRN, facilitating the reversible interaction of WRN with perturbed replication forks and subsequent degradation of WRN. The dynamic interaction between WRN and DNA is required for the suppression of new origin firing and Rad51-dependent double-stranded DNA break repair. Significantly, ATR-mediated WRN phosphorylation is critical for the suppression of chromosome breakage during replication stress. These findings reveal a unique role for WRN as a modulator of DNA repair, replication, and recombination, and link ATR-WRN signaling to the maintenance of genome stability.
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