Genomic dynamics associated with malignant transformation in IDH1 mutated gliomas
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Chul-Kee Park1,*, Inho Park2,*, Seungmook Lee3,*, Choong-Hyun Sun3, Youngil Koh4, Sung-Hye Park5, Ja Eun Kim1, Hongseok Yun3, Se-Hoon Lee6
1Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
2SD Genomics, Seoul, Korea
3Samsung SDS, Seoul, Korea
4Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
5Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
6Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Se-Hoon Lee, e-mail: email@example.com
Hongseok Yun, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: clonal evolution, genomic sequencing, glioma, IDH1 mutation, malignant transformation
Received: August 09, 2015 Accepted: October 06, 2015 Published: October 20, 2015
The genomic mechanism responsible for malignant transformation remains an open question for glioma researchers, where differing conclusions have been drawn based on diverse study conditions. Therefore, it is essential to secure direct evidence using longitudinal samples from the same patient. Moreover, malignant transformation of IDH1-mutated gliomas is of potential interest, as its genomic mechanism under influence of oncometabolite remains unclear, and even higher rate of malignant transformation was reported in IDH1-mutated low grade gliomas than in wild-type IDH1 tumors. We have analyzed genomic data using next-generation sequencing technology for longitudinal samples from 3 patients with IDH1-mutated gliomas whose disease had progressed from a low grade to a high grade phenotype. Comprehensive analysis included chromosomal aberrations as well as whole exome and transcriptome sequencing, and the candidate driver genes for malignant transformation were validated with public database. Integrated analysis of genomic dynamics in clonal evolution during the malignant transformation revealed alterations in the machinery regulating gene expression, including the spliceosome complex (U2AF2), transcription factors (TCF12), and chromatin remodelers (ARID1A). Moreover, consequential expression changes implied the activation of genes associated with the restoration of the stemness of cancer cells. The alterations in genetic regulatory mechanisms may be the key factor for the major phenotypic changes in IDH1 mutated gliomas. Despite being limited to a small number of cases, this analysis provides a direct example of the genomic changes responsible for malignant transformation in gliomas.
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