Stromal cells promote anti-estrogen resistance of breast cancer cells through an insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5)/B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl-3) axis
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Benjamin Leyh1, Angela Dittmer1, Theresia Lange1, John W. M. Martens2, Jürgen Dittmer1
1Clinic for Gynecology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/Saale, Germany
2Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Jürgen Dittmer, e-mail: email@example.com
Keywords: stromal cells, anti-estrogen resistance, fulvestrant, mesenchymal stem cells, carcinoma-associated fibroblasts
Received: May 12, 2015 Accepted: October 09, 2015 Published: October 19, 2015
There is strong evidence that stromal cells promote drug resistance of cancer. Here, we show that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) desensitize ERα-positive breast cancer cells to the anti-estrogen fulvestrant. In search for the mechanism, we found that MSCs and CAFs similarly increased the activity of the PI3K/AKT and the JAK/STAT3 pathways and upregulated the expression of integrin β1, IGF1R, HIF1α, CAIX and Bcl-3 in MCF-7 cells. Further analyses revealed that MSCs and CAFs coordinately induce these changes by triggering the downregulation of IGFBP5. Loss of IGFBP5 in MCF-7 cells was an early and long-lasting event in response to MSCs and CAFs and was accompanied by growth stimulation both in the absence and presence of fulvestrant. The growth-stimulatory effect in the absence of fulvestrant could be attributed to PI3K/AKT pathway activation and could be mimicked by insulin. The growth-promoting effect in the presence of fulvestrant depended upon the upregulation of Bcl-3. By cRNA microarray analysis we identified additional IGFBP5 targets, of which two (KLHL4 and SEPP1) were inversely regulated by IGFBP5 and Bcl-3. BT474 cells also responded to stromal cells by downregulating IGFBP5 and upregulating the P-AKT, Bcl-3 and IGF1R levels, whereas T47D cells did not show any of these responses. In conclusion, our data suggest that, by targeting IGFBP5 expression in ERα-positive breast cancer cells, such as MCF-7 cells, MSCs and CAFs are able to orchestrate a variety of events, particularly activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, upregulation of Bcl-3 expression and desensitization to anti-estrogen.
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