IL-32θ inhibits monocytic differentiation of leukemia cells by attenuating expression of transcription factor PU.1
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Man Sub Kim1, Jeong-Woo Kang1, Yun Sun Park1, Dong Hun Lee1, Yesol Bak1, Taeho Kwon1, Do-Young Yoon1
1Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio/Molecular Informatics Center, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Do-Young Yoon, e-mail: email@example.com
Keywords: myeloid differentiation, Interleukin-32, PU.1, C/EBPα
Received: October 11, 2014 Accepted: December 31, 2014 Published: January 23, 2015
PU.1 is a key transcription factor regulating the myeloid differentiation. PU.1-induced monocytic differentiation into macrophage is also important for blood cancer development. Therefore, we chose THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells to investigate the function of a recently discovered IL-32θ. Genetic analyses identified differences in the sequences of IL-32θ and IL-32β. Using previously established cell lines that stably express IL-32θ and IL-32β and cell lines transiently expressing IL-32θ, we observed that expression of IL-32θ inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced monocytic differentiation in both THP-1 and HL-60 cells. IL-32θ also suppressed expression of the macrophage cell surface markers, CD11b, CD18, and CD36. Interestingly, expression of IL-32β or IL-32θ had no effect on the expression levels of cell cycle related factors. As a result, we concluded that these isoforms did not contribute to PMA-induced cell cycle arrest. IL-32θ was found to modulate expression of PU.1, a transcription factor necessary for myeloid lineage commitment. Transient expression of PU.1 in THP-1/IL-32θ cells rescued the observed differentiation defect. Additionally, transient expression of both CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and PU.1 in THP-1/IL-32θ cells exhibited synergistic effects in rescuing the differentiation defect. These observations indicate that intracellular IL-32θ inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages by attenuating PU.1 expression.
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