Statins affect human glioblastoma and other cancers through TGF-β inhibition
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Aizhen Xiao1, Breanna Brenneman1, Desiree Floyd1, Laurey Comeau2, Kelsey Spurio1, Inan Olmez1, Jeongwu Lee3, Ichiro Nakano4, Jakub Godlewski5, Agnieszka Bronisz5, Noritaka Kagaya6, Kazuo Shin-ya6 and Benjamin Purow1
1Departments of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
2Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
3Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
5Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
6National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tokyo 135-0064, Japan
Benjamin Purow, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: statin; glioblastoma; TGF-beta; SMAD3; RhoA/ROCK
Received: September 18, 2018 Accepted: February 09, 2019 Published: March 01, 2019
The cholesterol-lowering statins have known anti-cancer effects, but the mechanisms and how to utilize statins in oncology have been unclear. We noted in the CellMiner database that statin activity against cancer lines correlated with higher expression of TGF-β target genes such as SERPINE1 and ZYX. This prompted us to assess whether statins affected TGF-β activity in glioblastoma (GBM), a cancer strongly influenced by TGF-β and in dire need of new therapeutic approaches. We noted that statins reduced TGF-β activity, cell viability and invasiveness, Rho/ROCK activity, phosphorylation and activity of the TGF-β mediator Smad3, and expression of TGF-β targets ZYX and SERPINE1 in GBM and GBM-initiating cell (GIC) lines. Statins were most potent against GBM, GIC, and other cancer cells with high TGF-β activity, and exogenous TGF-β further sensitized mesenchymal GICs to statins. Statin toxicity was rescued by addition of exogenous mevalonolactone or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, indicating that the observed effects reflected inhibition of HMG CoA-reductase by the statins. Simvastatin significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous GIC grafts and prolonged survival in GIC intracranially grafted mice. These results indicate where the statins might best be applied as adjunct therapies in oncology, against GBM and other cancers with high TGF-β activity, and have implications for other statin roles outside of oncology.
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