A CARP-1 functional mimetic compound is synergistic with BRAF-targeting in non-small cell lung cancers
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Vino T. Cheriyan1,2, Hashem Alsaab5,7, Sreeja Sekhar1,2, Jaganathan Venkatesh1,2, Arindam Mondal6, Imran Vhora6, Samaresh Sau5, Magesh Muthu1,2,8, Lisa A. Polin2,4, Edi Levi1,3, Gerold Bepler2, Arun K. Iyer4,5, Mandip Singh6 and Arun K. Rishi1,2,4
1John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA
2Department of Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA
3Department of Pathology, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA
4Molecular Therapeutics Program, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA
5Use-inspired Biomaterials and Integrated Nano Delivery (U-BiND) Systems Laboratory Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
6College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA
7Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif 26571, Saudi Arabia
8Present Address: Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, Umeå 90187, Sweden
Arun K. Rishi, email: rishia@Karmanos.org
Keywords: NSCLC; TKIs; CFM; CARP-1/CCAR1; B-Raf-inhibitors
Received: January 03, 2018 Accepted: May 15, 2018 Published: July 03, 2018
Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) account for 85% of all lung cancers, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed or activated in many NSCLC that permit use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as frontline therapies. Resistance to EGFR TKIs eventually develops that necessitates development of improved and effective therapeutics. CARP-1/CCAR1 is an effector of apoptosis by Doxorubicin, Etoposide, or Gefitinib, while CARP-1 functional mimetic (CFM) compounds bind with CARP-1, and stimulate CARP-1 expression and apoptosis. To test whether CFMs would inhibit TKI-resistant NSCLCs, we first generated and characterized TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. The GI50 dose of Erlotinib for parental and Erlotinib-resistant HCC827 cells was ~0.1 μM and ≥15 μM, respectively. While Rociletinib or Ocimertinib inhibited the parental H1975 cells with GI50 doses of ≤0.18 μM, the Ocimertinib-resistant pools of H1975 cells had a GI50 dose of ~12 μM. The GI50 dose for Rociletinib-resistant H1975 sublines ranged from 4.5-8.0 μM. CFM-4 and its novel analog CFM-4.16 attenuated growth of the parental and TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. CFMs activated p38/JNKs, inhibited oncogenic cMet and Akt kinases, while CARP-1 depletion blocked NSCLC cell growth inhibition by CFM-4.16 or Erlotinib. CFM-4.16 was synergistic with B-Raf-targeting in NSCLC, triple-negative breast cancer, and renal cancer cells. A nano-lipid formulation (NLF) of CFM-4.16 in combination with Sorafenib elicited a superior growth inhibition of xenografted tumors derived from Rociletinib-resistant H1975 NSCLC cells in part by stimulating CARP-1 and apoptosis. These findings support therapeutic potential of CFM-4.16 together with B-Raf targeting in treatment of TKI-resistant NSCLCs.
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