GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk in Polish nonsmokers
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Justyna Klusek1, Anna Nasierowska-Guttmejer2, Artur Kowalik3, Iwona Wawrzycka1,4, Piotr Lewitowicz2, Magdalena Chrapek5 and Stanisław Głuszek1,4
1Department of Surgery and Surgical Nursery with a Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland
2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland
3Department of Molecular Diagnostics, Holy Cross Cancer Centre, Kielce, Poland
4Department of General, Oncological and Endocrinological Surgery, Voivodeship Hospital, Kielce, Poland
5Department of Probability Calculus and Statistics, Institute of Mathematics, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland
Justyna Klusek, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: colorectal cancer; GSTT1; GSTM1; GSTP1; gene polymorphism
Received: September 15, 2017 Accepted: March 19, 2018 Published: April 20, 2018
Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes are responsible for cellular detoxification of many carcinogens and are important anticancer elements. This study assessed potential relationships between GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Polish nonsmokers. We also analyzed the influence of GST gene polymorphisms on CRC clinical and histopathological features. Our study included 197 CRC patients and 104 healthy controls. GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms were evaluated using qPCR. Polymorphism frequencies observed in our control group corresponded to those in other European populations. The GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes were observed with similar frequencies in both CRC patients and controls (GSTM1 null: 46.7% vs. 45.2%; GSTT1 null: 15.7% vs. 20.2%). GSTP1 Ile/Ile, Ile/Val, and Val/Val genotype frequencies were respectively 42.1%, 48.2%, and 9.6% in patients and 48.1%, 42.3%, and 9.6% in controls. GSTT1 polymorphism correlated with higher tumor grade in CRC patients, and the GSTM1 null/null genotype was associated with more frequent metastasis to lymph nodes (pN classification). Our results suggest that GST gene polymorphisms may influence CRC tumor grade and stage.
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