Meta-analysis of a 10-plex urine-based biomarker assay for the detection of bladder cancer
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Norihiko Masuda1, Osamu Ogawa1, Meyeon Park2, Alvin Y. Liu3, Steve Goodison4,5, Yunfeng Dai6, Landon Kozai7, Hideki Furuya7, Yair Lotan8, Charles J. Rosser7 and Takashi Kobayashi1
1Department of Urology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
2Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
3Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
4Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
5Nonagen Bioscience Corporation, Jacksonville, FL 32216, USA
6Department of Biostatistics, The University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
7Clinical & Translational Research Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
8Department of Urology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Takashi Kobayashi, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: urine biomarkers; meta-analysis; urinary bladder; urothelial carcinoma; diagnosis
Received: September 15, 2017 Accepted: December 27, 2017 Published: January 03, 2018
A 10-plex urine-based bladder cancer (BCa) diagnostic signature has the potential to non-invasively predict the presence of BCa in at-risk patients, as reported in various case-control studies. The present meta-analysis was performed to re-evaluate and demonstrate the robustness and consistency of the diagnostic utility of the 10-plex urine-based diagnostic assay. We re-analyzed primary data collected in five previously published case-control studies on the 10-plex diagnostic assay. Studies reported the sensitivity and specificity of ten urinary protein biomarkers for the detection of BCa, including interleukin 8, matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 10, angiogenin, apolipoprotein E, syndecan 1, alpha-1 antitrypsin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, carbonic anhydrase 9, and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Data were extracted and reviewed independently by two investigators. Log odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine how strongly the 10-plex biomarker panel and individual biomarkers are associated with the presence of BCa. Data pooled from 1,173 patients were analyzed. The log OR for each biomarker was improved by 1.5 or greater with smaller 95% CI in our meta-analysis of the overall cohort compared with each analysis of an individual cohort. The combination of the ten biomarkers showed a higher log OR (log OR: 3.46, 95% CI: 2.60–4.31) than did any single biomarker irrespective of histological grade or disease stage of tumors. We concluded that the 10-plex BCa-associated diagnostic signature demonstrated a higher potential to identify BCa when compared to any single biomarker. Our results justify further advancement of the 10-plex protein-based diagnostic signature toward clinical application.
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