Synthetic nickel-containing superoxide dismutase attenuates para-phenylenediamine-induced bladder dysfunction in rats
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Bing-Juin Chiang1,2, Tien-Wen Chen1, Shiu-Dong Chung3,4, Way-Zen Lee5 and Chiang-Ting Chien1
1Department of Life Science, College of Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei City 11677, Taiwan
2Department of Urology, Cardinal Tien Hospital, New Taipei City 23148, Taiwan
3Department of Urology, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City 220, Taiwan
4Graduate Program in Biomedical Informatics, College of Informatics, Yuan-Ze University, Chungli 320, Taiwan
5Department of Chemistry, College of Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei City 11677, Taiwan
Chiang-Ting Chien, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Shiu-Dong Chung, email: email@example.com
Way-Zen Lee, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: urinary bladder; para-phenylenediamine; Ni-SOD mimics; micturition; programmed cell death
Received: May 23, 2017 Accepted: October 05, 2017 Published: November 11, 2017
Para (p)-phenylenediamine and its toxic metabolites induce excess reactive oxygen species formation that results in bladder voiding dysfunction. We determined the effects of synthetic Ni-containing superoxide dismutase mimics and the role of oxidative stress in p-phenylenediamine-induced urinary bladder dysfunction. P-phenylenediamine (60 μg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered for 4 weeks to induce bladder injury in female Wistar rats. Synthetic Ni-containing superoxide dismutase mimics, WCT003 (1.5 mg/kg) and WCT006 (1.5 mg/kg), were then intraperitoneally administered for 2 weeks. Transcystometrograms were performed in urethane-anesthetized rats. The in vitro and in vivo reactive oxygen species levels and pathological changes in formalin-fixed bladder sections were evaluated. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis. P-phenylenediamine increased voiding frequency, blood and urinary bladder levels of reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil and mast cell infiltration. It also upregulated biomarkers of autophagy (LC3 II), apoptosis (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), and pyroptosis (Caspase 1). WCT003 and WCT006 ameliorated reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, and bladder hyperactivity. P-phenylenediamine increased oxidative stress, inflammatory leukocytosis, autophagy, apoptosis, and pyroptosis formation within the urinary bladder. Novel synthetic nickel-containing superoxide dismutase mimics relieved p-phenylenediamine-induced bladder inflammation and voiding dysfunction.
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